1. Language Foundations
    1. Knowledge of first and second language development in children and young adults and its relationship to thinking, learning, and one's own cultural uniqueness
    2. Understanding of first and second language acquisition factors in relation to literacy development.
    3. Knowledge of major theories of first and second language acquisition
    4. Knowledge of applied linguistics and of the structure and functions of spoken and written languages
  2. Cultural Foundations
    1. Knowledge of local, state, and federal laws pertaining to educating students with limited English proficiency
    2. Knowledge of historical foundations of bilingual education
    3. Understanding and appreciation of the meaning and nature of culture that transcends simplistic stereotypical portrayals
    4. Knowledge of cultural diversity and the impact of diversity on learning and communication styles
    5. Ability to involve parents and the community in educating students with limited English proficiency and to create linkages that enhance educational experiences for LEP students
    6. Knowledge of human development as mediated by language, culture, beliefs, and values
  3. Pedagogy
    1. Knowledge of and skills in using a variety of methods for teaching first and second languages, such as whole language, project approaches, inquiry/discovery techniques, individualized instruction, cooperative learning, cross-age grouping, and sheltered classrooms
    2. Knowledge of curriculum materials for teaching conversation, composition, literature, and culture of the second language, and for teaching content of other academic disciplines in the second language
    3. Knowledge of developmental levels of children and adolesceits and how these influence approaches to teaching and learning
    4. Ability to use technology to enhance instruction of limited English speakers and to expand students' knowledge and skills in content areas
    5. Understanding of the basic tenants of a standards-based model and how to implement it
    6. Knowledge of learning styles and strategies
    7. Ability to create a caring, inclusive, safe and linguistically and culturally rich learning community
  4. Assessment
    1. Knowledge of and skills in using a variety of assessment measures including proficiency oriented tools appropriate for assessing students' oral proficiency and literacy development in first and second language with awareness of assessments of students with special needs including gifted and talented students
    2. Knowledge of effective ways to assess academic content and student growth in a student's first language
    3. Ability to interpret assessment outcomes and communicate these to parents and colleagues
  5. Professional Leadership
    1. Ability to advance the goals of the education reform movement, specifically in the areas of multiculturalism (the diversity of a pluralistic society should be reflected in all structures of educational institutions)
    2. Ability to contribute to the growth and development of one's colleagues and the broader learning community.
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